Kidney disease can affect children in various ways, ranging from curable ailments without long-term consequences to life-threatening conditions. Acute kidney disease develops suddenly, lasts for a shorter period of time and can go away once the underlying cause has been treated. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) doesn’t improve with treatment and tends to get worse over time. CKD eventually leads to kidney failure.

Children with CKD or kidney failure face many challenges, which can include:

  • Low self-esteem
  • Problems in maintaining relationships
  • Behavioral problems
  • Learning problems
  • Trouble concentrating

Children suffering from CKD may grow at a slower rate compared to their peers.

Causes of kidney disease in children:

Kidney disease in children can be caused by:

  • Hereditary issues
  • Birth defects
  • Infection
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Trauma
  • Urine blockage or reflux

From the time a child is born till the age of 4, birth defects and hereditary diseases are the leading causes of kidney failure. Between the ages 5 and 14, kidney failure is one of the most common diseases caused by hereditary issues, nephrotic syndrome and systematic diseases.


The surgeon will diagnose kidney disease in children by having a thorough check-up of your body, asking for a medical history, and considering all the signs and symptoms. To confirm diagnosis, a couple of tests might be in order for you, which include:

Dipstick test for albumin: The presence of albumin in urine is a sign that the kidneys may be damaged. Albumin in urine can be detected with a dipstick test. With a dipstick test, a nurse or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the person’s urine sample. The change in the colour of the dipstick will determine the presence of albumin in your urine.

Blood test: This is the most common test to detect any kind of kidney disorders. Blood is drawn out of the body and then sent to a lab for further analysis. It will help detect how much blood the kidneys filter each minute, called the estimated glomerular filtration rate or eGFR.

Kidney biopsy: Kidney biopsy is a procedure that involves taking a small piece of kidney tissue for examination under a microscope. Biopsy results show the cause of the kidney disease and the extent of kidney damage


Treatment for kidney disease in children depends on the cause of the illness. A child is most likely to be taken to a paediatric nephrologist. Children having high blood pressure may need to take medications to lower their blood pressure. Improving blood pressure can significantly reduce the damage caused to the kidneys. Further, it might lead to kidney failure and the child should receive proper treatment in order to make the kidneys function properly again. The two types of treatment are dialysis and transplantation and Fortis International Hospitals is one of the finest paediatric dialysis centers in India.

Eating, Diet and Nutrition

For children who suffer from Nephrotic syndromes, learning about nutrition is vital because their diet can affect how well their kidneys function. Here are a few things to be kept in mind:

  • Proteins: rggs, milk, cheese, chicken, fish, red meat and beans.
  • Potassium levels need to stay in the normal range for children having CKD, because too little or too much potassium can cause heart and muscle problems.
  • Low-potassium fruits and vegetables include: apples, strawberries, pineapple, cabbage, mustard greens, blueberries, raspberries and uncooked broccoli.
  • High-potassium fruits and vegetable include: oranges, melons, bananas, potatoes, tomatoes, apricots, cooked spinach and sweet potatoes.
  • Phosphorus level should be under control because too much phosphorus depletes calcium from the bones, making them weaker. Phosphorus is found in high-protein foods that include: green beans, lime soda, rice and corn cereals, egg white, sorbet.
  • Fluids intake should also be limited as they cause a child to urinate more which can lead to swelling or dehydration.

For an optimal solution, it is advisable to visit a paediatric nephrologist. They diagnose, treat and deal with every kind of disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, high blood pressure, inherited kidney diseases, kidney stones, urinary tract infections and other such similar abnormalities. They will observe and treat you closely for you to receive the best form of treatment. Fortis International Hospital is one of the top Paediatric nephrology hospitals in India offering the complete spectrum of treatment for kidney disorders.