The bladder is an organ that holds urine before it leaves the body. More than 90 percent of bladder cancers start in the cells that make up the innermost lining of the bladder wall. Consult with us for we offer some of the best uro-oncologists in India.
What is bladder cancer?
There are different types of bladder cancer. The cancer cell type can be transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma- each named for the types of cells that line the wall of the bladder where the cancer originates.
- Most bladder cancers, more than 90 percent start from the transitional cells, which occupy the innermost lining of the bladder wall. The cancers, which originate in these cells lining the bladder can, in some instances, invade into the deeper layers of the bladder, the thick muscle layer of the bladder, or through the bladder wall into the fatty tissues that surround the bladder.
- Squamous cells are thin flat cells that line the urethra and can form in the bladder after long bouts of bladder inflammation or irritation. Squamous cell carcinoma makes up about 5 percent of bladder cancers.
- Adenocarcinoma is a very rare type of bladder cancer that begins in glandular cells in the lining of the bladder. Only 1 percent to 2 percent of bladder cancers are adenocarcinoma.
What are the stages of bladder cancer?
Bladder cancer can be either early stage or invasive. In the earliest stages, the cancer is confined to the lining of the bladder or in the connective tissue just below the lining, but has not invaded into the main muscle wall of the bladder.
Stages II to IV denote invasive cancer:
- In stage II, cancer has spread to the muscle wall of the bladder.
- In stage III, the cancer has spread to the fatty tissue outside the bladder muscle.
- In stage IV, the cancer has metastasized from the bladder to the lymph nodes or to other organs or bones.
Some of the Warning Signs of Bladder Cancer
Some symptoms of bladder cancer are also symptoms of other conditions, and should require a quick medical attention. Blood in the urine is the most important warning sign. Pain during urination, frequent urination or difficulty in urinating are some of the other symptoms.
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